Essential hypertension: the name given to the majority of people with high blood pressure, in other words cause “unknown”. Most of these people have a high blood pressure due to their high carbohydrate diet. The cause of the hypertension is increased resistance of blood vessels due to thickening of the vessel wall. This is caused by a swelling of the blood vessel lining (the endothelium) as a result of increased levels of circulating glucose. On a low carb diet this swelling decreases with a rapidly reduced need for medication. If you undertake carbohydrate restriction your blood pressure should be closely monitored.